The main cytological types are translocation deletion, inversion, insertion, isochromosome, dysenteric chromosome and ring chromosome. An inversion is a 180-degree change in direction of a chromosomal segment. Prerequisite for every inversion is a break at two different sites, fallowed by reunion of the inverted segment. Depending on whether the centromere is involved, a pericentric inversion (the centromere lies within the inverted segment) and a paracentric inversion can be differentiated.

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